House Construction Tips in Lucknow
Foundation | Construction of Foundation
Cement Concrete in foundation bed 1:5:10 ( 1 Cement :5 sand (fine sand ) : 10 stone blast 40mm down gauge). The thickness of the foundation bed varies from 15cm to 30 cm depending upon the structural design it is laid directly after the excavation of the bed of trenches. concrete is to distribute the load and level the foundation bed.
Masonry in foundation with first-class brickwork in cement mortar 1:6 (1 Cement: 6 Sand).
Damp Proof Course (DPC) 40mm thick DPC in cement concrete 1:2:4 ( 1 Cement: 2 coarse sand 4: crushed stone aggregate 12mm and down gauge.
Hot Bitumen Coating using 1.7kg per square meter shall be applied over the dried-up surface of cement concrete (over DPC Surface ) after property sealing it with brush and finally with a piece of cloth soaked in kerosene oil. The bitumen shall be applied uniformly all over,so that no blank spaces are left.
Walls shall be with a first-class brick in cement mortar 1:6 Brickwork shall be in 9" thick for load-bearing walls. All courses shall be laid truely horizontal and all vertical joints shall be truely vertical.
Reinforced Cement Concrete
RCC work in slab (Roof). lintel, beams. chailas and columns shall be with cement concrete in ratio of 1:2:4.
STEEL Mild steel deformed bars shall be used as reinforcement in all RCC work. The diameter of bars shall be provided according to structural design. All steel shall be free from rust. oil or dust.
COVER Minimum thickness of concrete cover (exclusive of plaster or other decorative finish) for various elements are:
a) SLAB For tensile.compressive.shear or other reinforcement at least IS mm or diameter of bar whichever is greater.
b) BEAM For longitudinal reinforcement at least 25 mm or diameter of bar whichever is greater.
c) COLUMN For longitudinal reinforcement at least 40 mm or diameter of bar whichever is greater.For Column of minimum dimensions of 20cm , 25mm cover may be used.
d) Ends at each end of reinforcing bar at least 25 mm or twice the diameter of such rod or bar.
4. SHUTTERING at least 30 mm thick wooden planks or steel plates stiffened by steel angles may be used. It shall be supported on battens and beams and props of vertical ballies properly cross-braced together,so as to make the formwork rigid
a) Surface Treatment for Shuttering
The surface of timber shuttering coming in contact with concrete shall be properly cleaned. well wetted and coated with soap solution applied before concreting It done. Alternatively. a coat of raw linseed oil or form oil of approved quality may be applied on.
b) Removal Time for Shuttering
In normal conditions ( generally where the temperature is above 20-degree Celsius) and where ordinary cement is used, time for removal of formwork for different members should be as under
b.1 Walls. columns and vertical sides of beams - 48 hours
b.2 Undersides of slabs up to 4.5 meters span - 7 days
b.3 Undersides of slabs upto 4.5 mtr span and undersides of beams upto 6 mtr span - 14 days
b.4 Undersides of beams and arches over 6 meters span and upto 9 meters span - 21 days
Generally curing shall be done for 7 to 10 days. In winters it should be continued for 14 days. The curing may be done by following methods:
i) Covering the concrete surface with moist sand. earth, gunny bags etc. and sprinkling water at intervals to keep the covering wet. ii) Floors or other horizontal surfaces may be cured by holding water in earthen or sandy bunds in square over the entire area
iii) Columns, walls or other such vertical surfaces are covered by wrapping gunny bags over the surface and keeping the same wet by sprinkling water.
The flooring is generally done in the following layers:
I) After DPC. earth shall be filled in layers not exceeding 20 cm upto plinth level. This should be properly watered and consolidated by ramming with iron rammers and with butt ends of crowbars when filling reaches the finish level. The surface shall be flooded with water for at least 24 hours. allowed to dry and then rammed and consolidated. in order to avoid any settlement at a later stage. The finishing level of the filling shall be kept to slope intended to be given to the floor.
ii) Over the earth filling, about 15 cms thick fine sand layer shall be filled, properly sloped, well rammed and watered.
iii) 7.5 cm thick layer of 1:5:10 (I cement:5 fine sand: 10 brick ballast) shall be laid in proper slope and rammed properly
iv) 28 mm thick cement concrete 1:2:4 (1 cement : 2 coarse sand : 4 crushed aggregates) shall be provided. Glass, Plastic or Aluminium strips are laid in floors. These strips divide the floors in smaller areas (the ideal bay is about 1.2 sqm) in order to prevent cracking due to temperature variations. They are also useful for providing designs and patterns in the flooring.
v) 12 mm thick marble chips concrete in 1:2 (1:cement:2 marble chips) is laid. White cement with light shade pigments shall be used for colouring. For dark colours ordinary grey cement with colouring pigment is used.
GRINDING. CURING AND FINISHING
Grinding shall be done by machine except for near corners and skirting etc. It shall be done in three layers:
i) First Grinding is done after 36 hours of laying of floor top layer with machine using rapid cutting grit blocks of course grade (No.60). After the first grinding, the surface shall be thoroughly washed and covered with grout of cement to fill any pin holes that appear and left for curing 5 to 7 days.
ii) Second Grinding shall be after 5 to 7 days with machine using fine grit block (No.120) and again cleared and repaired as before and allowed to cure for 3 to 5 days.
iii) Third Grinding shall be done after 3 to 5 days with grit blocks (No.320) to get even and smooth surface. The floors may be cleaned and polished with wax polish.
ROOFING OR TERRACE
LIME CONCRETE TERRACING
Lime mortars used shall be in 1:2 (1:lime putty 2:surkhi). The volume of wet mortar to be used will be 50% of laid (and not thrown) in a single layer and spread and rammed with wooden rammers of weight not exceeding 2 kg to the specified averaged thickness sloped and levelled.
While the beating is in progress, the surface should be liberally sprinkled with a mixture of gur and boiled solution of bael fruit in the proportion of 1.75 kg of gur to 1 kg bael fruit boiled in 60 litres of water. As soon as the beating is completed the mortar that has come on top shall be softened by adding the solution of gur and bael.
The lime concrete treatment shall be done over hot bitumen at the rate of 1.7 kg per sqm. and blended with 0.06 cubic meter of coarse sand
WOOD FOR FRAMES
All timber shall be of good quality teak and well seasoned. It should be hard. dark coloured. uniformly coloured. sweet-smelling. reasonably straight grain and shall be free from knots.cracks and shakes etc.
DOOR AND WINDOW SHUTTERS (FLUSH DOOR SHUTTERS)
Door shutters shall be decorative plywood faced flush doors.These shall consist of a solid core covered on each face with cross bands and face veneers and lipped on all the edges.
A wooden frame prepared from styles and rails shall be of well seasoned and treated wood. Good quality wood shall be provided for holding the core. The width of members shall not be less than 50 mm and not more than 100mm.
Alternatives to timber such as Medium Density Fibre Boards. Glass Reinforced Gypsum Boards and Cement Bonded Particle Boards may also be used instead of timber. These products are fireproof, termite free. and act as alternatives to timber.
PANELLED, GLAZED OR PANELLED AND GLAZED SHUTTERS FOR DOORS.WINDOWS
i) joinery work shall be started immediately after the commencement of the building work.
ii) The thickness of styles and rails shall be as specified for the shutters. The thickness of panels shall be 16mm upto a width of 400 mm and 19mm for a greater width.
iii) Shutters shall not be painted, oiled or otherwise treated, before these are fixed in position.
Glazing shall be of good glass not less than 2 mm thick for panes upto 0.09 sq.mtr and 3mm thick for panes bigger than 0.09 sq.m. Glasses shall be free from flaws, speeks or bubbles. In doors. windows and clerestories of bath, WC and lavatories frosted glass panes shall be used. Superior glass panes such as sheet glass, plate glass, pin head glass shall be used where required. Glass panes shall be fixed by wooden beading having mitred joints. A thin layer of putty shall be applied between glass panes and sash bars and also between glass panes and the beading. Fixing of glass panes with simple putty and brads shall not be permitted. Putty shall be prepared by mixing one part of white lead with three parts of finely powdered chalk and then adding boiled linseed oil to the mixture to form into a stiff paste.
RCC stairs with a maximum rise of 150 mm and minimum tread of 250mm shall be provided.
The finishing may consist of the following:
i) 15mm thick cement plaster 1:2:4 (1 cement:2 coarse sand:4 fine sand) on rough side.
ii)12mm thick cement plaster 1:2:4 (I cement:2 coarse sand: 4 fine sand) smooth side (outside).
iii) Distempering with washable oil bound distemper in verandah, kitchen and passage.
iv) Synthetic enamel paint of approved quality in rooms.
v) Finishing external walls with two or more coats of decorative water proof cement paint.
vi) Polish on all wood work on doors and windows.
vii) Ceramic tiles pasted on cement mortar 1:3 (I cement 3: coarse sand) in latrine. W.C. and kitchen, toilet, bathroom.
SOME GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
The following precautions and suggestions should be considered while constructing a house:
i) Water: Water shall be clean and reasonably free from deleterious matter such as oils, acids, alkalies, salts and vegetable growth.
ii) Fine sand (Jamuna sand)- This shall be natural river sand. clean. sharp and free from excessive deleterious matter. It shall not contain more than 8 percent of silt.
ii) Coarse sand- This shall be natural, pit sand,clean.sharp and strong. Stone dust can also be used in place of coarse sand.
v) All scaffolding. props or support shuttering should be good and be able to take the weight of slabs without sagging.
vi) Bricks required for masonry in cement shall be thoroughly soaked in clean water for at least one hour in brick-lined tank of sufficient size immediately before use.
vii) Before construction taken up please check whether the location lies in an area prone to disasters like earthquake. floods.cyclones etc. Consult experts for adopting disaster-resistant construction features.
If you have not planned your home properly, then your budget may be spoiled. Before Starting a Construction proper planning is very important. In your budget
Cost of Land.
Cost of Construction is a major factor.
When you are purchasing land to build a house you should also see the development of that area in the coming 5 years.
Schools, Hospitals, Public Transports, Medical Store should be near the plot. While buying the plot, also see if you require space for a large garden or extra car parking. Generally, Square Feet and Square Meter dimensions are used.
Also, ensure that electricity and water management are available to your plot. You can hire a good lawyer to ensure the seller has ownership of the plot. Be sure to buy the plot in front of you and measurement of the plot in front of you.
verify documents at Land Record Office, Municipality Office and Register Office.Please Ensure Stamp Duty is Paid on the Total Value of Deed of Sale.therefore it becomes a certificate of your legitimate purchase and ownership.
Glassbox Plus Architects designs house according to your requirements.
The architect sees the house construction is being built according to his map.
The architect makes construction drawing of the house from the foundation to the slab. List of Drawings Required for House Construction in Lucknow.
The architect periodically looks at the construction of the house.
You can hire the architect of your locality or city. If you need architects in Lucknow, you can contact us.
Architect generally quotes their fees on Square feet basis or % on Total cost of construction of the house. For Architect fee in Lucknow.
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